Intraoperative Teaching and Evaluation in General Surgery

  • Richard A. Sidwell
    Corresponding author. Department of Surgical Education, 1415 Woodland Avenue, Suite 140, Des Moines, IA 50309, USA.
    Former Program Director of General Surgery Residency, Iowa Methodist Medical Center, Des Moines, IA, USA
    Adjunct Clinical Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Search for articles by this author


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Surgical Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Gawande A.
        Creating the educated surgeon in the 21st Century.
        Am J Surg. 2001; 181: 551-556
        • Roberts N.K.
        • Williams R.G.
        • Kim M.
        • et al.
        The briefing, intraoperative teaching, debriefing model for teaching in the operating room.
        J Am Coll Surgeons. 2009; 208: 299-303
        • Wood J.D.
        • Poola P.
        • Mellinger J.D.
        Effective intraoperative teaching: from theory to practice, RISE (Resources in Surgical Education), American College of Surgeons Division of Education.
        (Available at:) (Accessed January 15, 2021)
        • Timberlake M.D.
        • Mayo H.
        • Scott L.
        • et al.
        What do we know about intraoperative teaching?.
        Ann Surg. 2017; 266: 251-259
        • Cox S.S.
        • Swanson M.
        Identification of teaching excellence in operating room and clinic settings.
        Am J Surg. 2002; 183: 251-255
        • Skoczylas L.C.
        • Littleton E.B.
        • Kanter S.L.
        • et al.
        Teaching techniques in the operating room: the importance of perceptual motor teaching.
        Acad Med. 2012; 87: 364-371
        • Gardner A.K.
        • Timberlake M.D.
        • Dunkin B.J.
        Faculty development for the operating room: an examination of the effectiveness of an intraoperative teaching course for surgeons.
        Ann Surg. 2019; 269: 184-190
        • Ahmed M.
        • Sevdalis N.
        • Vincent C.
        • et al.
        Actual vs perceived performance debriefing in surgery: practice far from perfect.
        Am J Surg. 2013; 205: 434-440
      1. Brennan WJ & Supreme Court Of The United States. US Reports: Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184. [Periodical] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, 1963. Available at:

        • DaRosa D.A.
        • Zaischenberger J.B.
        • Meyerson S.L.
        • et al.
        A theory-based model for teaching and assessing residents in the operating room.
        J Surg Educ. 2013; 70: 24-30
        • George B.C.
        • Teitelbaum E.N.
        • Meyerson S.L.
        • et al.
        Reliability, validity, and feasibility of the zwisch scale for the assessment of intraoperative performance.
        J Surg Educ. 2014; 71: e90-e96
        • George B.C.
        • Teitelbaum E.N.
        • DaRosa D.A.
        • et al.
        Duration of faculty training needed to ensure reliable OR performance ratings.
        J Surg Educ. 2013; 70: 703-708
        • Larson J.L.
        • Williams R.G.
        • Ketchum J.
        • et al.
        Feasibility, reliability and validity of an operative performance ratings system for evaluating surgery residents.
        Surgery. 2005; 183: 640-649
        • Gofton W.T.
        • Dudek N.L.
        • Wood T.J.
        • et al.
        The Ottawa Surgical Competency Operating Room Evaluation (O-SCORE): a tool to assess surgical competence.
        Acad Med. 2012; 87: 1401-1407
        • Bohnen J.D.
        • George B.C.
        • Williams R.G.
        • et al.
        • Procedural Learning and Safety Collaborative (PLSC)
        The feasibility of real-time intraoperative performance assessment with SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning): early experience from a multi-institutional trial.
        J Surg Educ. 2016; 73: e118-e130
        • Karim A.S.
        • Sternback J.M.
        • Bender E.M.
        • et al.
        Quality of operative performance feedback given to thoracic surgery residents using an app-based system.
        J Surg Educ. 2017; 74: e81-e87